research manuscript critique part 2 –

research manuscript critique part 2 –

Assignment 1: Research Manuscript Critique Part 2

In this module we learned about who may be included in our research and how we may go about collecting information from them. Review each of the THREE research articles you selected in Module 1 (Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed) and continue your critique using the checklists below. Post your critique no later than by the due date assigned. Provide feedback to at least two of your peers through the end of the module. Make sure to incorporate corrections based on the feedback you received in previous assignments!


    • Sample Size: How many are included in this study? Is this sample size appropriate for this study?
    • Demographics: Explain the demographic variables (age, gender, ethnicity, education etc and how these related to the study).
    • Population: What population does the sample belong to? Ie: What are the general demographic characteristics of the population (students, children, healthy adults, mentally ill adults etc).
    • Recruitment: How were the participants recruited? Were all recruited included in the study? Is the sample appropriate for this study?
    • Location: Where were the data collected?
    • Discuss the appropriateness of the sample (is the size adequate? Is the sample appropriate for this study?)

    All written assignments and responses should follow APA rules for attributing sources.

    Module 3 Overview (1 of 2)

    Provides the learning outcomes on which the readings and assignments for this module are based.
    • Examine the purpose of a study, research methodology, and data collection methods.
    • Compare and contrast the characteristics of different research questions and possible methodologies.
    • Draft a methods section appropriate to research question(s).

    Research Definitions and Terminology

    In Module 3 we will start to examine the essential aspect of the method section of a research study (of the method chapter or a dissertation). Typical components in a methods chapter include:

    • Participants
    • Instruments
    • Procedures
    • Data analyses

    The purpose of the method section or chapter is to provide the specific information on the above four components of your study and to describe the exact steps you will take to conduct your study. The rule of thumb is to provide enough details so that a reader could replicate your study. You will learn more about the data analyses in the next two research courses. In this course, we will focus on the research design component of a study.

    In this module, we will review essential aspects of the research methodology of identifying population, selecting participants, and sampling procedures.

    In addition to Chapter 4 of your textbook, Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches, read pages 147–148 for quantitative methodology and pages 178–181 for qualitative methodology. In both methodologies, you need to describe issues of where you will obtain the participants, how many there will be, and if they are representative of the population to which you want to generalize (for quantitative design) or learn in depth (for qualitative design). We will discuss issues unique to quantitative and qualitative designs further on the next page.

    Module 3 Overview (2 of 2)

    Research Definitions and Terminology

    Quantitative Design

    The issue of obtaining participants for a quantitative study is to find a sample that is representative of the population to which you want to generalize your findings (your target population). The more you use random selection from a large heterogeneous target pool, the stronger the generalizability of your findings to the target population (Heppner & Heppner, 2004). In considering your intended target population, think about specific characteristics that may be of interest for your study. For example, are there demographic considerations of importance? (e.g., what is the relationship between acculturation and parent-child relationship for the Asian American?) If you are doing your research in a business, do years of experience matter?

    Another most asked question is: “How many participants will I need?” There are some rules of thumb (e.g., 15 participants per cell, etc.) you can find in statistics books. You also can examine past studies that are similar to the one you are doing (Heppner & Heppner, 2004). The more precise method is doing a power analysis. You will learn more about this in the next quantitative research course.

    The various issues related to selecting your sample will need to be discussed in your final paper, particularly the limitations of your sample. It is important to examine the pros and cons of your potential participant pool and sample and evaluate what this sample will mean in terms of generalizability of the findings (Heppner & Heppner, 2004).

    Qualitative Design

    In addition to the typical four sections in the method chapter we mentioned at the beginning of this module, for a qualitative design, you typically want to include information on:

    • Paradigms (e.g., assumptions and rationale for using this design), and
    • Strategies of inquiries (e.g., what particular qualitative strategy of inquiry you use)

    We will discuss the above further in Module 5.

    In this module, we will focus on the sampling strategies. However, since each qualitative paradigm is connected to specific research designs and strategies of inquiry, the preferred sampling strategy may differ. Different from the random sampling strategy preferred in quantitative design, the concept of purposeful sampling is used in qualitative research. Creswell (2009) states: “The inquirer selects individuals and sites for a study because they can purposefully inform an understanding of the research problem and central phenomenon in the study. Decisions need to be made about who or what should be sampled, what form the sampling will take, and how many people or sites need to be sampled” (p.125).

    Among the many qualitative sampling strategies, “maximum variation” is commonly used because this approach consists of determining in advance some criteria that differentiate the sites or participants, and then selecting sites or participants that are quite different on the criteria. When the researcher maximizes differences at the beginning of the study, it increases the likelihood that the findings will reflect differences or different perspectives, which is what qualitative research wants to achieve (Creswell, 2009). Other sampling strategies include “snowball” or “chain,” which identifies cases of interests from people who know people who know what cases are information-rich, and “critical cases,” which provide specific information about a problem (Miles & Hubreman, 1994).

    Assignment 1 Grading Criteria

    Maximum Points

    Included research manuscript critique including: Manuscript Reference, type of study, research topic, purpose, overarching research question, specific research questions, hypotheses and/or theory.


    Discussed the sample size.


    Discussed the demographic variables.


    Identified the population.


    Discussed recruitment.


    Identified the location.


    Discussed the appropriateness of the sample.


    Responded in a significant manner to at least two postings.


    Wrote in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrated ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources, displayed accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Justified ideas and responses by using appropriate examples and references from texts, Web sites, and other references or personal experience. Followed APA rules for attributing sources.




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